Triumph Motorcycles timeline

1883-1918: The Early Years

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Siegfried Bettmann, 20, comes to Coventry, England from Nuremberg, Germany. After a brief period he is employed by Kelly & Co. compiling foreign directories for their publications. After six months, he got a job with the White Sewing Machine Co. as a foreign correspondent and translator. For several months he also worked as the company's sales representative in northern Europe. Siegfried Bettmann
Siegfried Bettmann as Mayor of Coventry, 1913
Germans Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach develop a four-stroke internal combustion engine and install it in a self-propelled bicycle - the worlds first motorcycle.


S. Bettmann & Co. Import Export Agency started in London, selling bicycles made in Birmingham by Wm. Andrews, but with Bettmann's name on them. They also imported German sewing machines and acquired the agencies of other German manufacturers.
Edward Butler patents his powered tricycle in England. Count Albert de Dion and partner Georges Bouton (France) build an engine based on Gottlieb Daimler's original design, which became the basis of the modern four-stroke engine. A steam-powered bicycle is exhibited at the Maricopa County Fair in Phoenix.


German Gottlieb Daimler builds his motorcycle, considered by many historians the first real motorcycle in the world, although it has two extra "stabilizer" wheels. It has a wooden frame with the engine mounted vertically in the centre between the two main front and back wheels. His son Paul rode it in November for six-seven miles.


Triumph name replaces Bettmann, a word Bettmann feels is easily understood in most languages. He calls his company 'The Triumph Cycle Company.'
German bicycle firm Victoria founded. German bicycle firm Neckarsulmer Radwereke adopts initials NSU. Edward Butler (UK) makes tricycle with twin-cylinder, two-stroke engine with rotary valves


Name registered as New Triumph Co. Ltd., but changed later to Triumph Cycle Co. Ltd. Shares underwritten by the Dunlop Tyre Company to the tune of 45,000 pounds. German engineer Maurice (Mauritz) Johann Schulte, also from Nuremberg and a trained engineer, joins Bettmann as junior partner. He would soon convince Bettmann that Triumph should not sell other companies' products, but should make their own. M. Schulte
An Englishman, Edward Butler, builds a three-wheel powered tricycle called the Petrol-Cycle, which he had patented in 1884. It has electric ignition. On his first run, British police stop him from using it on the road. The bike is broken up for scrap. Expatriate Russian brothers Michel and Eugene Werner built and displayed a motorcycle using a De Dion engine in Paris. It has the engine mounted above the front wheel. Charles Terrot (France) starts making bicycles in Dijon. Simplex (Holland) starts as a weighing machine company, soon turns to making bicycle parts. Lawrence Hargrave (Australia) invents the rotary engine design. Mauritz Schulte on a Hildebrand and Wolfmuller bike (see 1894).


Small former ribbon-weaving works factory acquired on Much Park Street in Coventry for Triumph to manufacture its own bicycles. Coventry is centre of Britain's cycle trade. Initial capital of 650 pds comes from Bettmann's parents (500) and Schulte's relatives. Later, Dunlop Tyre would be a major investor in the company.
Englishman John Dunlop invents the inflatable tire. Felix Millet (France) takes out first patents for a rotary engine design.


Bicycle manufacturing started. Company moves headquarters from London to Much Park St., Coventry.


Hudson starts a bicycle factory in Birmingham, joins Armstrong and restructures to become Hudson Cycle Co.


Hildebrand and Muller design a two-stroke petrol engine (they had designed a steam engine in 1889) and use on a bicycle.  J.D. Roots builds motorized tricycle, sells them in France because of restrictions on use in Britain.


Cycle Manufacturers' Association formed in UK to run first bicycle show at the Crystal Palace. E. J. Pennington builds the first American motorcycle, a horizontal twin two-stroke.


Hildebrand and Wolfmuller make the world's first production motorcycle, a 1,428cc four-stroke with 2.5 bhp and a top speed of 25 mph. It is made under licence in France for one year under the name Petrolette. Matchless Company founded by the Collier family. A motorcycle powered by a Millet-designed rotary engine is entered in the Paris-Bordeaux race.


Schulte considers producing Hildebrand & Wolfmuller motorcycles under license, and imports one for testing. He rode it at the Coventry cycle stadium.
First Petrolettes delivered. De Dion-Bouton (France) fit engine onto tricycle. Bouton (France) develops 120cc engine capable of running at unprecedented 1800 rpm. Col. Capel Holden's designs the world's first four-cylinder motorcycle, with water-cooled engine. Great Horseless Carriage Exhibition: first exhibition of 'horseless carriages' organized by Sir David Salomons at his home in Tunbridge Wells, Kent. Motorized tricycles made by de Dion-Bouton are shown there. Brothers Andre and Edouard Michelin develop mass rubber-tire production.


Locomotive Act repealed: British legislation on powered vehicle speeds had restricted speeds to 6.4 km/4 mph limits. Also lifted restriction requiring all powered vehicles to be preceded by a man waving a red flag. Excelsior, Bayliss, Thomas & Co  (UK, later simply Excelsior) is the first British manufacturer of production motorcycles. Beeston Cycle Company makes first motorized tricycle. Eugene & Michel Werner (ex-Russians living in Paris) build their first motorcycle, called a �motorcyclette�. Has engine on front tube powering front wheel. Holden (UK) begins development of four-cylinder, water-cooled motorcycle - released in 1899.


Hildebrand and Wolfmuller, having financial problems, cease production of their motorcycle, now outdated. Eight motorcycles are displayed in London trade shows this year. Beeston makes its first motorized bicycle. Edoardo Bianchi (Italy) first puts an engine on a bicycle frame to start selling motorcycles. Butler (UK) builds �Petro Cycle� - powered tricycle. Holden (UK) makes motorcycle with horizontal four cylinders. First motorcycle race (France): Paris-Nantes-Paris. Eugene & Michel Werner (France) patent a motorcycle using a belt drive to the front wheel


Bettmann negotiates to make Beeston Humber motorcycles and motor tricycles, but an agreement is not reached.
Ariel shows its first bike - a motorized tricycle, 293cc single, at London's Crystal Palace, Nov. 18. Col. Sir Henry Holden designs a steam-powered motorcycle. Josef Walter founds a bicycle firm in Czechoslovakia. Werner (France) builds 300 machines this year, 500 the next. Beeston asked to demonstrate its tricycle to the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) and the machine is ridden by the Duke of York (later King George V). First motorcycle races in Germany: Berlin to Potsdam (36 m - 54 km). Werner brothers (France) sell 300 motorcycles.


Matchless Motorcycles founded. Holden's four-cylinder motorcycle manufactured by Motor Traction Company until 1902. Holden went on to design the race track at Brooklands. Camile Jenatzy becomes the first man to exceed 100 kilometers an hour in a car, at Acheres, May 1. De Dion-Bouton (France) make their first motorcycle. Perks & Birch make their "Power Wheel" powered bicycle in Coventry. Dutch firm Eysink (founded 1886) makes its first motorcycles and cars. Raleigh makes its first motorized bicycles.Werner brothers (France) sell 500 motorcycles.


In the final year of the 19th century, international automobile racing starts, with the first race cup donated by American newspaper proprietor, James Gordon Bennett. For the first time, colours are assigned to nations: blue for France, white for Germany, yellow for Belgium, red for the United States (later for Italy) and a special shade of "British racing green" was chosen by the Napier company for England. Indian Motorcycles (USA) is founded by George Hendee and Oscar Hedstrom. George Holly (USA) builds his first motorcycle.
Oakleigh Motor Company invents and builds the first sidecar. Singer Cycle Co. buys Perks & Birch, takes over production. John Phelon and Harry Rayner of Cleckheaton, Yorkshire, patent a new engine location. Although not the first to use the system, they moved the engine off the downtube. NSU (Germany) builds first motorcycles.
Norman Downs buys an ailing bicycle business and reorganizes it under New Imperial Cycles, starts working on motorcycle production. Belgian firm Minerva starts production. Walter (Czechoslovakia) produces its first motorcycle. First long-distance motorcycle race (Germany): Berlin-Aachen (415m - 688 km). Phelon & Moore (UK) make first chain-driven motorcycle. Werner brothers introduce four-stroke single engine



The 20th Century begins. James Norton starts his motorcycle business. Ariel makes its first motorcycle.  Royal Enfield makes its first motorcycle. Belgian company FN (La Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre, founded 1899) makes their first motorized bicycle. Quadrant (UK) makes its first motorcycle.Two-stroke pioneer Sir Dugald Clerk advocates supercharging the engines. Swiss brothers Henri and Armand Dufaux patent a compact engine, form Motosacoche, making a 211cc machine. Simplex (Holland) makes first motorcycle.
The Russian Werner brothers (expatriates in France) redesign their motorcycle to put the engine in front of the pedals at the bottom of the frame.  It is the first machine to go beyond the engine-strapped to a  bicycle frame design, the first modern motorcycle and it dominated the 1902 races. First New Imperial motorcycles shown in London, but get no orders, so none are produced this year. First Indian (USA) motorcycle produced, 150cc. John Phelon and Richard Moore found P&M Company (later Panther). First NSU motorcycle (Germany). Edward Turner is born in London on the day King Edward VII is proclaimed King. 
The monthly British magazine, Engineering, describes motorcycling as a "form of entertainment that can appeal only to the most enthusiastic of mechanical eccentrics... We think it doubtful whether the motorcycle will, when the novelty has worn off, take a firm hold of public favour." At the London trade show, 100 different motorcycles are on display. Edward Turner is born in London.


First Triumph motorcycle is produced, designed by Schulte, using single-cylinder 2.25 (1.75?) bhp Belgian Minerva engine with automatic inlet valve and battery/coil ignition, fitted onto a bicycle frame (clipped to the downtube). This year will be celebrated in 2002 by Triumph as its 100th anniversary. Schulte also experimented with both Fafnir and JAP engines.
Belgian company FN (founded 1899) makes their first motorcycle, a single. Bat Motor Company starts motorcycle production in London. British engineer Sir Dugald Clerk invents the two-stroke engine. Montgomery founded. Merkel & Yale (USA) founded. Simplex  (Holland) produces first motorcycle. Humber starts building motorcycles in Coventry, under P&M patents. Peugot (France) uses Werner frame design for its motorcycles. Clement of France designs 1,000cc four-cylinder V-four engine for racer: capable of 71 mph (115 kmh). Indian (USA) starts using chain drive. Andre Boudeville (France) invents high-voltage magneto for engine ignition. Steffey (US) shows a water-cooled engine at Paris show. Zedel (Switzerland) makes V-twin engine with automatic inlet valves and mechanically-controlled exhaust valves. Used on Griffon (France) motorcycles.


Upgraded Minerva engine with present day side-valve layout is used, but the company soon turns to JAP engines. A branch of the company, Orial TWN (Triumph Werke Nuremberg) is established in Germany to manufacture motorcycles there. Triumph sells 500 motorcycles this year.
UK speed limit increases from 12 mph to 30 mph (possibly 20?). UK bans passengers from riding side-saddle on motorcycles. Standard Motor Company founded. In 1945, this company would buy the Triumph car company. Harley Davidson (USA) makes its first three motorcycles. Chater Lea produces its first motorcycle. Chas. Brinks introduces an in-line, four-cylinder, air-cooled engine, used in a motorcycle this year by Evart-Hall (London). Aeolus Motorcycles (London) introduces the shaft drive. DOT ('Devoid of Trouble') founded. Husquvarna (Sweden) makes its first motorcycles. Sidecar development starts to keep pace with motorcycles. Fred Graham (UK) patents sidecar design, product made by Mills & Fulford. Indian (USA) makes first V-twin.
This year 376 motorcycles are on display in the London trade show. Auto Cycle Union (ACU) founded in England as an offshoot of the Royal Automobile Club of Great Britain and Ireland. Cycle Manufacturers' Association disappears. The Motorcycle, first commercial magazine launched in March.


J. A. Prestwich engine (JAP) now used, also second model with 3 bhp Belgian Fafnir engine is made. Decision is made to produce their own motorcycles, not just clip-on to other companies' designs.
Veloce founded by German-born Johannes Gutgemann. Belgian company FN makes the world's first mass-produced four-cylinder motorcycle. Indian (USA) production is up to more than 500 bikes a year. First Hercules (Germany) motorcycle. Harley-Davidson (USA) produce eight motorcycles this year. Singer drops the Power Wheel for more conventional motorcycles. J. A. Prestwich produces his first engine. He also started building complete motorcycles this year. P&M becomes Panther Motorcycles. Federation Internationale Motocycliste (FIM) founded in France. Batavus (Holland) company started. Peugot (France) uses first swing-arm rear suspension. 25,000 motorcycles registered in England. First Grand Prix race (France). Werner brothers (France) make their first twin-cylinder motorcycle. Fabrique National d�Armes de Guerre (FN - Belgium) makes first production in-line four cylinder motorcycle with shaft drive to rear wheel. ROC makes a V-twin engine.


First all-Triumph machine produced, also the first all-British motorcycle, designed by Schulte and Works manager Charles Hathaway. Sells for 45 pounds. Uses 3bhp, 300cc (363cc?) side-valve engine. Cruising speed was 30-40 mph, with a top speed 40-50 mph. Production up to 250 per annum (five per week). Engine is the first to have ball bearings on main shaft. 1st Triumph
First all-Triumph motorcycle
Norton's first motorcycle is produced this year, using a Peugot engine. Victoria Motorcycles (Germany) produces its first machines. Winkelhofer and Jaenicke (Germany, founded 1902), make their first motorcycle, a shaft-drive single called the Wanderer. Fee (UK, later Douglas) designs first flat-twin motorcycle. First kickstarter introduced


Newly-invented Bosch-Simms high-tension (HT) magneto used on all Triumph motorcycles. Triumph Engineering Co. Ltd. registered April 23, 1906. Capital was 100 pounds, (increased to 21,000 pounds by February 25, 1936). Rocking front spring fork with horizontal spring introduced, frame redesigned and a new engine designed. Five hundred machines made this year. Motorcycle journalist 'Ixion' tests a prototype 1907 machine but it proves flawed and the frame breaks. He later used an upgraded 1907 model to ride 2,058 kms (1,279 miles) in six days. Frank Hulbert wins the Dashwood hill climb on a prototype 453cc Triumph - the company's first competition success. 1906 Triumph
1906 3.5bhp model
BSA produces its first motorcycle, a bicycle powered by a Minerva engine. Douglas produces its first motorcycles. Harley-Davidson (USA) production up to 50 machines. Auto Cycle Club holds its first quarterly Trial. There are more than 100 types of British motorcycle on sale in the UK, many using imported engines, most 3-6 horse power. Carbide lamps used in night portion of the Tour de France race. James Andrew Prestwich (JAP) makes his first v-twin OHV engine. First automobile TT run at the Isle of Man.


More than 1,000 motorcycles are made, with new 450cc 3.5bhp engine. Triumph riders Jack Marshall and Freddie Hulbert place second and third in the first motorcycle TT race (Isle of Man - a Matchless was the first). Company moves main production to larger premises on Priory Street and doubles production to 1,000 vehicles. Much Park address still used for service and to produce line of lower-value Gloria cycles and sidecars. Bettmann elected to Coventry City Council.
Brooklands race track, with banked track, opens. It was designed by Col. Sir Henry Holden. Speed trials begin, but racing doesn't start there until 1908. A Norton and a Matchless motorcycle win the first TT race. Harley Davidson production reaches 150 bikes this year, and the company expands. Indian builds its first V-twin. Excelsior (USA) starts making motorcycles using a 2.25 bhp Thor engine, calls them "Triumph." 60,000 motorcycles registered in England. Indian (USA) introduces twist-grip throttle and makes its first V-twin motorcycle engine (there were V-twins in Europe as early as 1902).


Variable pulley - high 4:1, low 6:1 - could be changed by dismantling at the roadside, also Triumph's own two-slide patent carburetor introduced. Engine controls are moved to the handlebars. First variable-gearing on Triumph bikes - required the rider to stop and move the belt drive to a different pulley. Jack Marshall wins single-cylinder class on a Triumph in Isle of Man TT Race and makes fastest lap 42.48mph (68.36kph), with an average of 40.49 mph (65.16kph). Triumph riders also take 3rd, 4th, 5th, 7th and 10th places. Triumph's profits for the year were 22,048 pounds.
W.E. Brough begins building motorcycles. Norton manufacturers its first motorcycle engine. J.A. Prestwich stops building complete motorcycles, focuses on engines. Hercules (Germany) makes first electric car. It charges overnight. Harley-Davidson production up to 450. TT models lose pedal mechanism after race officials agree no more pedalling bikes will be allowed. Pearson and Cox (UK) start making steam-powered cars. Werner (France) ceases motorcycle production to make cars. First race at Brooklands, Feb. 25, is a private challenge between W. McMinnies on a TT Triumph and Oscar Bickford on a Vindec. The Triumph won at just under 53 mph. Scott (UK) introduces two-stroke, twin-cylinder engine. Werner brothers (France) cease production. Harley Davidson made its first V-twin motorcycle.


Production now up to 3,000 per annum. Schulte works on a new rear-hub multi-clutch plate for easy starting. Company also does first tests with a vertical twin engine, a 616cc Bercley.
Guiseppe Gilera founds his motorcycle company. Alfred Scott introduces the kickstart on his 333cc motorcycle. Calthorpe produces its first motorcycle. Rudge-Whitworth founded, starts making motorcycles. Alfred Scott founds Scott Motorcycles, makes first bike, a 333cc two-stroke. Belgian firm Minerva ceases production. Lee Chadwick (USA) makes supercharging work on competition cars. British Cycle and Motorcycle Manufacturers and Traders Union formed to run an annual motorcycle show and look after mutual interests. First president is Sir Charles Marston, founder of Sunbeam. Pierce Cycle Company (USA) launches its first motorcycle, a single-speed  in-line four. First organized sand-track races at Daytona. Scottish Six Day trials founded by Edinburgh Motor Cycling Club. First BSA motorcycle production - uses BSA parts with Minerva engine.


Two models released this year, doubling the lineup! 3.5 bhp, 499cc TT model cataloged with magneto ignition only - coil not even optional. Albert Catt rides a Triumph 'Tourist Trophy Roadster' just under 2,000 miles (3,038 km) in six days. production up to 3,000 vehicles a year.
First US drive-in gas station with island pumps is built in Detroit. BSA makes first all-BSA motorcycle, sets up production facility in Small Heath to make its motorcycles. Rudge Whitworth makes its first motorcycle. L.A. Police (USA) creates eight-man motorcycle police force, one of world's first. New Imperial tries again: fits a 293cc JAP engine into a converted bicycle frame. The bike, the Light Tourist, is a big success. New Hudson releases a three-speed gear hub and a special metal-to-metal clutch for motorcycles. Soon follows with its own JAP-powered complete motorcycles. Morgan three-wheel "cyclecar" debuts, using JAP engine. Ceska Zbrojovka (CZ) factory built in Czechoslovakia, initially to make armaments. Terrot (France) offers belt-drive 'motorette' with gear changer using variable pulley. There are 283 machines on display at the British motorcycle show this year. Female riders Beatrice Langston, Mabel Hardee and Muriel Hind compete in the Quarterly Trial. First electric lights used on motorcycles (manufactured by Powell & Hammer, UK). AJS makes an 800cc V-twin with a three-speed transmission and kickstart.



Schulte's easy-start "Free-engine" model with multi-plate clutch in rear hub is available (patented by Schulte in 1908, this is Triumph's first bike with a clutch). This meant riders no longer had to run along side the bike to get it started, then jump on! They could just ride away from a stopped position.  Four 3.5 bhp models are now available: the Roadster, Free-Engine Model, TT Roadster and TT Racer. Top speed was 50-55 mph. Ivan Hart-Davies rides a Triumph on his last End-To-End ride, John O'Groats (Scotland) to Land's End, 886 miles, in 29 hours 12 mins., averaging just over 30 mph. Albert Catt rides a Triumph 2,400 (2,557?) miles in six days. Pedalling gear is dispensed with on most models and replaced by foot pegs.
TT race moves to full-length mountain circuit. Henderson (USA) begins producing motorcycles, becomes known for its in-line fours. Levis founded. OK Supreme founded. Singer releases its own-design motorcycle, a 299cc single, followed by a 499cc side-valve and a 535cc side-valve single. New Hudson designs its own motorcycle engine. John Wooler founds his motorcycle company. Kickstarts replacing hand and pedal starts for most manufacturers. Alcyon (France) motorcycle made with four-valve cylinder head for TT races. Harley Davidson makes its first V-Twin motorcycle engine.


Sunbeam makes its first motorcycle, a 350cc single. Excelsior (USA) name sold to a Detroit firm. They start making 5.5 hp singles called "Triumph," until 1913. Italian firm Aeronautica Macchi (Aermacchi) formed. Pearson and Cox make their first steam-powered motorcycle, but the company closed in 1914. Female rider Mabel Hardee competes in ACU Six Days trial on a 500cc P&M. Edmund Dangerfield opens the first motor vehicle museum, in London. Fred Watson founds the Patent Collapsible Sidecar Company to make folding sidecars (the name changed in 1913 to Folding Sidecar Company and in 1931 to Watsonian Sidecars Company Ltd.). Bradley introduces variable gearing through manually-adjustable pulleys. Indian (USA) takes top three spots at TT races. Royal Enfield makes a V-twin engine.


Bettmann is elected Mayor of Coventry 1913-14. As mayor, he established the charitable Prince of Wales Fund. He was also a founding member and former president of the Coventry Chamber of Commerce and president of the Coventry Liberal Association (until 1940). Triumph (Schulte) builds an experimental 600cc vertical twin side-valve engine, with horizontal crankcase joint (horizontally split crankcases would not reappear until the late 1950s). Model C is the last one offered with a pedal start.

Two stroke, two speed, two-stroke 225cc 'Junior' model designed by Hathaway specifically for women is announced. It has a top speed of 35 mph. Public calls it the "Baby Triumph." It's the first new Triumph engine since 1910. For a brief while (1916-20), Ignatz Schwinn, of Chicago, manufactures the Junior under license in the USA (as Excelsior), upgrading the engine to 269cc.

Veloce makes its first two-stroke  motorcycle, the Velocette. The name sticks and the company is called that afterwards. First roadside petrol pump built in the UK, in Shrewsbury. Norton is in voluntary liquidation, but James Norton reforms it with Bob Shelley as Norton Motors Ltd. Villiers starts making its first production engine. Pierce Cycle Company (USA) in liquidation, production ends.100,000 motorcycles registered in England, 70,000 motorcycles were manufactured in the USA. First motorcar to exceed 100 mph. A V-twin NUT using a 350cc JAP engine wins the IOM Junior TT race.


By 1914, the company was producing 4,000 singles annually. Hathaway is now Triumph's chief designer. The main vehicle is the 550c Type A Roadster, which produced 4 hp and used the reliable Bosch high-tension magneto.
Singer stops making motorcycles in 1914. World War 1 declared in August. Puch company formed in Austria. Werner (France) stops production. Edmund Dangerfield's museum is replaced by an army training centre, many machines lost or left to rot. Scott Trial started as a company event, opened to other riders in 1919. Megola (Germany) makes motorcycle with five-cylinder radian engine in front wheel. First protective helmets introduced, used by Irish racers at TT races. Indian (USA) offers electrical starting and electrical lighting on bikes. 200 motorcycle manufacturers exist in USA, 200 in UK and at least 200 in Europe.


Production became focused on the Allied war effort. Model 'H' roadster with chain drive (designed by Schulte and similar to the Type A) was introduced in 1915, 550cc side-valve four-stroke with Sturmey-Archer three-speed gearbox and belt transmission - considered by many to be the first "modern" motorcycle. Soon earns the nickname "Trusty Triumph." Some 30,000 Model H bikes were supplied to Allied forces in World War I (20,000 for UK forces). 1914 Triumph
'Trusty' Triumph, 4 bhp machine used by Allied troops in WWI
Bettmann meets Col. Claude Holbrook, who handles motorcycle procurement for the War Office and orders Triumph bikes for the Army. Holbrook later joined Triumph.
In 1915, the first stop lights were fitted to American cars. TT races halted by war.  In 1915, the Cleveland Motorcycle Company (USA) builds a two-stroke "Lightweight" almost an exact copy of Triumph's Junior model, and continues production of it until 1924. In 1916, Excelsior (USA, owned by Schwinn) builds its own Junior clone, the L18. Ivor Davies says the company was licensed by Triumph to manufacture the machines until 1920. In 1917, US company Henderson merges with Excelsior in Chicago, under Ignatz Scwinn. In 1918, Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW) is founded in Germany. In 1915 British Post Office uses motorcycle riders to deliver mail. In 1915, BSA built a large four-storey workshop to accommodate huge production increases during the war. In 1915, Edward Turner got his first ride on a motorcycle (a Light Tourist New Imperial).

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